Toyota 4x4 - Engines and Trannies

Oct. 01, 2001 By ORC STAFF


The 22R Family (2.4L inline 4)

  • 2366cc or 144 cubic inch displacement
  • SOHC inline 4 cyl
  • 3.63" bore x 3.50" stroke

Common Areas

Timing chains for 22R engines should last about 125,000 miles. Many last considerably longer (mine is 145,000).

However, experimenting with this may not be a particularly good idea--- if the chain breaks, the valves WILL be clobbered by the pistons.

The alternators don't always last as long as they should. They are easily fixed, though. The most common problem is simply worn brushes.

Find an automotive electric shop (that rebuilds alternators).

I got new brushes for $1.00. It wasn't that tough to replace them. The Toyota service manual helps.

The water pumps generally last about 100,000 miles. (Again, mine is past 140,000).

If you run really cheap, junky gas, you can go through three fuel filters and pumps within a week!

Many of these engines develop leaks in the front and/or rear crankshaft oil seals.

These leaks are usually caused by scores in the crankshaft sleeves, possibly by the oil seals themselves.

There are steel sleeves (Ready-Sleeves) that can be used to replace or cover up the scores.

There is a kit that puts a brass sleeve on the shaft, which stops the rubber seal from wearing a groove into the shaft.

There have been some reports of valve tapping/rocker knocking. Many of 'em do this, and it doesn't seem to be much more than an annoyance.

The 22R (carburated)

  • 96 hp @ 4800 rpm
  • 100 lb-ft torque @ 2800 rpm
  • 8:1 compression ratio, runs fine on 87 octane
  • 0.67 hp per cubic inch

The 22R is the typical all-mechanical engine.

There are a couple electronic things under there, but the vast majority of the engine can be tweaked with good ol' mechanics.

It's carburated, so if you know what you're doing, you can run it for a long time, rebuilding almost the whole thing by yourself.

Other people haven't needed to replace a single engine component in 60,000 miles.

One thing: there are two fuel filters specified for 1984 4Runners.

The books don't seem to list the correct one for trucks made between 3/84-8/84.

It's a straight-through filter, the same one as the '77 Toyota Celica 20R.

The guy at Harr Toyota (Worcester, Mass) thought that someone had modified the fuel system, but that hasn't happened.

Problems I've had: Let's see... We've "had" mine since new. It was my father's company truck, which I bought three years ago.

We had a bit of trouble with the rear diff, replacing front and rear pinion bearings, and the exhaust was replaced aft of the catalytic converter.

In mid-1992, the alternator failed, and was fixed for $1 worth of brushes.

(Tip: Alternator brushes are usually available at Automotive Electric places--- where they rebuild alternators, etc.)

In February '93, the crankshaft oil seal, a V-belt, and some radiator hoses were replaced.

Due to cheap gas, I went through three fuel pumps and filters in November, 1993.

I changed the thermostat 1/94. In 10 years and 140,000 mi, that, occasional brake jobs, and 3-5k oil changes have kept it up.

David Snyder (DSNYDER@FALCON.AAMRL.WPAFB.AF.MIL) says: The 22R is a great engine.

I put 145k miles on mine in about 7 years and only tuned it up twice and even then it wasn't running poorly it is just I felt it needed to be done.

Never ran anything but BP regular unleaded and never had a ping or knock. Had a couple of oil leaks but new gaskets fixed that.

I also remember replacing the water pump on that engine. The pump cost me about $98 to have replaced.

The 22R-E (Electronically-Controlled Fuel Injected)

  • Bore/Stroke: 92mm/89mm
  • Displacement: 2367cc (144.4 cu. in.)
  • 116hp @ 4800rpm
  • 140 lb-ft torque @ 2800rpm
  • 9.3:1 compression ratio, requires 90 octane unleaded
  • 0.79hp per cubic inch
  • average mpg about 22.65, 26.8 on the highway

Jim Chott ( says: I have one in my 85 pickup and I don't think I will ever swap it for a bigger V-6 of any type.

It is reliable and gets good mileage (20-23 mpg with 32" tires)

It lugs down to about 1000rpm when climbing rocks and revs to 5000 rpm when running cinders.

Keeps up with bigger engined trucks off-highway. Doggy on 6% grades on highway, (sometimes drops to 50 mph).

From friends who have this engine in 4Runners, they say the tranny gearing must be different because the engine doesn't perform as well in them.

David Snyder (DSNYDER@FALCON.AAMRL.WPAFB.AF.MIL) says: The 22RE while dependable is not as bullet proof as the 22R.

Ran nothing but regular unleaded till about 60k at which time I started to get pinging when it was warm and going up grades.

Had two tuneups in 108k miles.

Doesn't seem to run any better after the tune than before. I have had to have the throttle plate cleaned and lubed on mine several times.

When it gets dirty (covered with varnish I think) the throttle will stick on the first press of the gas pedal in the morning.

The 22R-TE (Electronically-Controlled Fuel Injected Turbocharged)

  • 145 hp @ 4800 rpm
  • 180 lb-ft torque @ 3000 rpm
  • 7.? :1 compression ratio
  • 1.0 hp per cubic inch
  • average mpg in 1986 4Runner (5-speed) = 20

Peter Burke says: I've got one, but mine is a swapped engine - it used to be a plain EFI.

Mine is also a 5-speed, which was never a factory option for turbo-4Runners.

Factory turbos have stronger rear ends than the normal Toys, too.

One thing I noticed, which must be even more important if you live in warmer climates: the cooling system must be clean and working well!

I am saving for a new radiator, since the thing [with standard EFI radiator]

overheats whenever I go for extended highway trips at above 2800rpm (boost kicks in :-)).

Uphills in Utah in August had me turn the heaters on last summer.

Those two heaters come in handy as reserve radiators! In Wisconsin they have other benefits, too.

Check how clean the engine is (take the valve cover off). Any black grime in there means the oil wasn't changed as often as a turbo should be.

I run only synthetic in mine to clean out the dirt the previous owner had built up in there.

Wished I had bought it with less miles on it

(238,000 on the body, maybe 80,000 or so on the engine), but it seems to be in great shape.

What is more important is that the turbo is in good shape! Those cost $1400 as a spare part;

Ouch! I just saw an ad for a factory new 350 4-bolt small block for $1680...

As with all turbos, you have to know if the owner idled the engine for a while before shutting it off to avoid coking oil in the turbo.

On the other hand, as long as the turbo engine works, you'll wonder how Toyota could ever sell trucks without it!

It's accelleration is dramatically improved over the normal 4cyl,

especially if you keep the rpms above 2800 (the auto should be calibrated for that - my 5 speed needs a brain at he wheel...)

Last summer I was able to break my rear out while driving up to Mt. St. Helens, accellerating out of some curves - just got into that sports car feeling :-).

My turbo is also running thru 2 1/4 custom exhaust pipes, a turbo muffler, and my nose tells me that the previous owner may have forgotten to install a cat...

My turbo gets about 20mpg under all but severe driving conditions. That's worse than the carbureted 22R in my pickup, but not too painful.

I'd rather have this engine than a Toyota V6, which gets about 17mpg and doesn't really add much torque - and my oil filter can be changed easily.

The Factory turbos only came with automatic transmissions. Look at the emsissions sticker under the hood - should list the 22RT-E number.

Factory turbos also have a boost gauge in the fancy dash - I don't have that.

Common Questions page for details.

The 5VZ-FE V-6 3378 cc, 206.1 CI
  • 183 hp @ 4800 rpm
  • 217 lb-ft torque @ 3600 rpm
  • 9.6:1 compression ratio
  • Bore/stroke 93.5 x 82.0
  • This motor is a 24-valve V6 used in 3rd generation 4Runners and in the Toyota Tacoma.

    3L (2.8 liter diesel)


    The G52 5-Speed manual

    The G52 is the five-speed,

    fully-synchonized manual transmission found in Toyota trucks '84 and after.

    Here are the gear ratios (thanks to Paul Kube:

    From Marlin Czajkowski's literature on Marlin crawlers: 1st 3.93, 2nd 2.33, 3rd 1.91, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.83.

    The Toyota "New Car Features" book lists the ratios slightly differently:

    1st 3.928, 2nd 2.333, 3rd 1.451, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.851. Reverse: 4.743.

    Also, the transfer case for the 4cyl, nonturbo 5 speed has ratio HI 1.00, LO 2.28

    There have been some conflicting reports about this transmission.

    Manual transmissions do offer better control (especially off-road), and better fuel economy.

    On the down side, however, many people do not have the coordination to drive a manual.

    The Toyota G52, while a very easy manual to drive (I learned on it and very seldom stalled) is also not the most robust component in the driveline.

    The 5-speed in my '84 4Runner has held up pretty well over ten years and 145,000 miles.

    I have, however, heard reports that over time the synchros (responsible for keeping the gear speeds matched,

    thus allowing shifts at any wheel speed and RPM) wear, often pretty badly. Also, the gear bearings themselves often wear, which means it's about time for a rebuild. :|

    It probably isn't a good idea to buy a Toyota 5-speed from a junkyard, as Peter Burke writes:

    Don't avoid the 5-speeds...just take good care of them!

    Don't buy them from junk yards like I did - have them rebuilt and blueprinted, then put amsoil synthetic gear lube in there, and they should last forever.

    (At least that's my plan for the current grinder down there).

    My pickup's 5-speed was in great shape when I got if as a replacement,

    and due to synthetic oil and good care the synchros still work great and no bearing makes any noise!"

    The 5-speed is also one of the components that should be put through its paces during any test drive.

    If the transmission is hard to shift, makes excessive noise,

    or just doesn't feel like a good old long-throw truck transmission, there may be something expensive wrong with it. That's good to know.

    Reportedly, the second and fourth gear teeth and bearings in the 5-speed are the weakest.

    In fact, I think mine has some (very faint) bearing noise in second.

    In short, if there's any part of a Toyota truck that would especially benefit from synthetic oil, it's the 5-speed.

    There's one last conflict: The 4Runner's tow rating for later models is as high a 3500 pounds with the 5-speed, but only 2000 pounds with the automatic.

    The G40 4-Speed manual

    I'm not sure which models on which this was available.

    Gear ratios are the same as the G52, without the overdrive 5th gear:

    1st 3.928, 2nd 2.333, 3rd 1.451, 4th 1.00. Reverse: 4.743. 

    The G54 5-Speed manual

    I'm not sure which models used this, but its a sweet setup with an lower 1st gear and an extra high

    overdrive, as compared to the G52:

    1st 4.452, 2nd 2.398, 3rd 1.414, 4th 1.00, 5th: 0.802. Reverse: 4.743.
      Please email me if you know more about this transmission.

    The G57 5-Speed manual

    This was used on 2WD models with the 22R engine.

    1st 3.704, 2nd 2.020, 3rd 1.368, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.854. Reverse: 4.472.

    The G58 5-Speed manual

    This was used on 4WD models with the 22R engine.

    It is basically a beefier version of the G57: 1st 3.928, 2nd 2.142, 3rd 1.397, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.851. Reverse: 4.743.

    The R150 5-Speed manual

    This was used on 2WD models with the 3VZ-E engine. 1st 3.830, 2nd 2.062, 3rd 1.436, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.838. Reverse: 4.220.

    The R150F 5-Speed manual

    This was used on 4WD models with the 3VZ-E engine.

    1st 3.830, 2nd 2.062, 3rd 1.436, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.838. Reverse: 4.220.

    The W46 4-Speed manual

    I believe this one was only used on 2WD models with 22RE engine:

    1st 3.954, 2nd 2.141, 3rd 1.384, 4th 1.00. Reverse: 4.091.

    The W55 5-Speed manual

    I believe this one was only used on 2WD models with 22RE engine:

    1st 3.566, 2nd 2.056, 3rd 1.384, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.850 Reverse: 4.091.

    The W56 5-Speed manual

    This tranny was used in 4x4 models with the 22RE engine:

    1st 3.954, 2nd 2.141, 3rd 1.384, 4th 1.00, 5th 0.850 Reverse: 4.091.

    The 3-Speed automatic

    Need to look up the model number and the gear ratios.

    This transmission is a normal three-speed hydraulic automatic transmission.

    Most of these units serve faithfully, but are not reccommended for hot climates---

    they have a reputation of overheating problems, especially in desert climates.

    I haven't heard anything about tranny coolers on them.

    The A43D 4-Speed Automatic Overdrive Transmission

    This automatic transmission was used in 2wd 22RE models: 1st 2.452, 2nd 1.452, 3rd 1.000, 4th 0.688 Reverse: 2.212.

    The A340E/A340F/A340H 4-Speed Automatic Overdrive Transmission

    This is Toyotas ECT (Electronically Controlled Transmission) automatic. It is used in both 22RE (4wd) models and in the 3VZ-E and 22R-TE

    (both 2wd and 4wd) 1st 2.804, 2nd 1.531, 3rd 1.000, 4th 0.705 Reverse: 2.393.

    The 4WD version (A340H) has a transfer case with low-range gearing of 2.659:1 Models designated A340F have

    (I think) the VF2A transfer case with a 2.566:1 low range

    Someone who asked to be anonymous sent the following info:

    The codes breakdown is as follows

    A 340 H A = automatic transmission 3 = 3 series 4 = 4 speed 0 = gear ratio / minor change H = hydraulic transfer case

    (includes ECT) F = mechanical transfer case (includes ECT)

    E = Electronic Controlled Transmission (used on 2WD 4Runners, other 2WD Toyota vehicles)

    This transmission uses 2 solenoids to control the shifting solenoid 2 1 th

    OFF 2 nd

    ON 3 rd

    ON 4 th



    The throttle cable is used for line pressure, it can be disconnected and the transmission will still shift normally.

    But if youloose power to your 2 shift solenoid, you will be taking off  in OverDrive.

    What you should do is :  Select LOW 1 . (1 st gear)  then 2nd ( 3rd gear) then D (over drive) Newsletter
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